Evolution is a fact if by it we mean the modification of species as well as the coming into being new forms of life over a long period of time.

But, what caused these changes? Evolutionary biologists look for natural causes such as the primordial matter/energy giving rise to the first living forms, survival of the fittest and genetic changes. They look at matter as the only efficient causality of all living forms or as a blind grouping toward an undetermined end. They leave out from their consideration the Universal Efficient Cause and Final Cause of creation.

I understand that evolution as a science looks only for natural causes. In other words, it restricts the view of reality because if it relegated all things to God as cause there would be no science of evolution. This is an appropriate methodology provided it leaves room for philosophy and theology to fill in the gap. Carl Zimmer the author of Evolution, The Triumph of an Idea states: "Science, as we professionals always point out, cannot establish absolute truth; thus, our conclusions must always remain tentative." The science of evolution is primarily concerned with the abilities and actions of secondary causes.




Now the question: If there is a Primary Cause, namely God, how does he act upon all his creatures? "Because of God's transcendence, he acts universally in all secondary causes. But as he source of being, which is 'innermost' in each thing, he also acts in each thing most immediately. Since God's action is one with his being and essence; there is, on his part, no intervening 'joint' or 'relation' between him and his creature in which he acts. To posit or require such a 'joint' or relation would be to reduce God to the level of other causes which do act only 'through such a disposition or relation', and so cannot be as intimately present to one another as God is in each of them." ( Thomistic Institute 2000: Dodds, nd.edu, Nov. 10, 2016)

He acts by His immediate creative presence, keeping each creature in existence with all its potential, directing the evolution of life toward its ultimate destiny which is Himself. God moves all creatures without actually moving them in the physical sense of he word. This is why we say that God is the unmoved mover; He does not physically move himself in order to move other creatures.

9. Intelligent Design